TOOLKIT REFERENCES

The tips listed for each skill were developed using a variety of sources: evidence from the research literature, best practices from instructional guides, suggestions from educational and parenting experts, advisory group meetings with kindergarten teachers working in Philadelphia, and advisory group meetings with families of young children living in Philadelphia. Below you will find information on the specific sources of the tips for each skill.

Organizes Self, Materials, and Belongings

 

Teachers:

Tip 1: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 2: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized

Tip 3: https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_to_help_your_kids_get_organized_without_nagging; https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; https://www.additudemag.com/overcome-all-those-firsts-3/; Rosenkoetter, S. E. (2001). Lessons for preschool language socialization from the vantage point of the first day of kindergarten. Early Education and Development12(3), 325-342.; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 4: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; https://www.additudemag.com/overcome-all-those-firsts-3/

Families:

Tip 1: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 2: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 3: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized

Tip 4: https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_to_help_your_kids_get_organized_without_nagging; https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; https://www.additudemag.com/overcome-all-those-firsts-3/; Rosenkoetter, S. E. (2001). Lessons for preschool language socialization from the vantage point of the first day of kindergarten. Early Education and Development12(3), 325-342.; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 5: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; https://www.additudemag.com/overcome-all-those-firsts-3/

 

RESPECTS SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT AND MATERIALS

 

Teachers:

Tip 1: Meiners, C. (2004). Respect and take care of things. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 2: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 3: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 4: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

 

Families:

Tip 1: Meiners, C. (2004). Respect and take care of things. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 2: https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/understanding-childs-challenges/simple-changes-at-home/10-tips-to-help-get-your-child-organized; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 3: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

 

 

Accepts Responsibility for Choices and Actions

Teachers:

Tip 1: Shure, M. B. (1992). I Can Problem Solve (Kindergarten and Primary Grades): An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Program for Children. Research Press.

Tip 2: https://thehighlyeffectiveteacher.com/how-to-get-a-student-to-own-their-behaviour/

Tip 3: Mulcahy, W. (2014). Zach apologizes. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing Inc.; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 4: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

 

Families:

Tip 1: https://thehighlyeffectiveteacher.com/how-to-get-a-student-to-own-their-behaviour/

Tip 2: https://www.parents.com/kids/responsibility/values/how-to-teach-kids-to-accept-responsibility-for-their-actions/

Tip 3: https://www.focusonthefamily.com/parenting/schoolage-children/blaming-and-tattling/curbing-the-blame-game-and-getting-rid-of-excuses

Tip 4: https://www.parents.com/kids/responsibility/values/how-to-teach-kids-to-accept-responsibility-for-their-actions/; Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Tip 5: Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Strives for Quality Work

Teachers:

  • Tip 1: Stephenson, K. M., & Hanley, G. P. (2010). Preschoolers’ compliance with simple instructions: A descriptive and experimental evaluation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 229-247.
  • Tip 2: Keilty, B., & Freund, M. (2004). Mastery motivation: A framework for considering the” how” of infant and toddler learning. Young Exceptional Children8(1), 2-10; Lucariello, J. M., Nastasi, B. K., Dwyer, C., Skiba, R., DeMarie, D., & Anderman, E. M. (2016). Top 20 psychological principles for PK–12 education. Theory Into Practice55(2), 86-93.
  • Tip 3: Collet, V. S. (2017). ” I can do that!” Creating classrooms that foster resilience. Young Children72(1), 23-31; De Haas-Warner, S. J. (1991). Effects of self-monitoring on preschoolers’ on-task behavior: A pilot study. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education11(2), 59-73; Rock, M. L. (2005). Use of strategic self-monitoring to enhance academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without exceptionalities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions7(1), 3-17.

 

Families:

  • Tip 1: Stephenson, K. M., & Hanley, G. P. (2010). Preschoolers’ compliance with simple instructions: A descriptive and experimental evaluation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 229-247.
  • Tip 2: Keilty, B., & Freund, M. (2004). Mastery motivation: A framework for considering the” how” of infant and toddler learning. Young Exceptional Children8(1), 2-10; Lucariello, J. M., Nastasi, B. K., Dwyer, C., Skiba, R., DeMarie, D., & Anderman, E. M. (2016). Top 20 psychological principles for PK–12 education. Theory Into Practice55(2), 86-93.
  • Tip 3: Collet, V. S. (2017). ” I can do that!” Creating classrooms that foster resilience. Young Children72(1), 23-31; De Haas-Warner, S. J. (1991). Effects of self-monitoring on preschoolers’ on-task behavior: A pilot study. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education11(2), 59-73; Rock, M. L. (2005). Use of strategic self-monitoring to enhance academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without exceptionalities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions7(1), 3-17.

Shows Positive Attitude Towards Learning

Teachers:

Families:

Completes Work on Time

Tip 1:
  • Barbarin, O. A, & Wasik, B. H. (2009). Handbook of child development and early education: Research to practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Tip 2:
  • Bragle B., Jirdon, A., & Giacomini, J. (2018). How to help your child manage time and understand expectations. Backpack Connection Series.
  • Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 75–113.
Tip 3:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Demonstrates Consistent Effort

Tip 1:
  • Keilty, B., & Freund, M. (2004). Mastery motivation: A framework for considering the” how” of infant and toddler learning. Young Exceptional Children8(1), 2-10.
  • Lucariello, J. M., Nastasi, B. K., Dwyer, C., Skiba, R., DeMarie, D., & Anderman, E. M. (2016). Top 20 psychological principles for PK–12 education. Theory Into Practice55(2), 86-93.
Tip 2:
  • Collet, V. S. (2017). ” I can do that!” Creating classrooms that foster resilience. Young Children72(1), 23-31.
  • De Haas-Warner, S. J. (1991). Effects of self-monitoring on preschoolers’ on-task behavior: A pilot study. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education11(2), 59-73.
  • Rock, M. L. (2005). Use of strategic self-monitoring to enhance academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without exceptionalities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions7(1), 3-17.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 3:
  • Sawyer, J. (2017). I think I can: Preschoolers’ private speech and motivation in playful versus non-playful contexts. Early Childhood Research Quarterly38, 84-96.
Tip 4:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Handles Conflict Appropriately

Tip 1:
  • Lamm, S., Groulx, J. G., Hansen, C., Patton, M. M., & Slaton, A. J. (2006). Creating environments for peaceful problem solving. Young Children61(6), 22.
Tip 2:
  • Dailey, A. L., Frey, A. J., & Walker, H. M. (2015). Relational aggression in school settings: definition, development, strategies, and implications. Children & Schools37(2), 79-88.
Tip 3:
  • Dinwiddie, S. A. (1994). The saga of sally, sammy and the red pen: Facilitating children’s social problem solving. Young Children49(5), 13-19.
  • Gartrell, D. (2002). Replacing time-out: Part two–using guidance to maintain an encouraging classroom. Young Children57(2), 36-43.
  • Lamm, S., Groulx, J. G., Hansen, C., Patton, M. M., & Slaton, A. J. (2006). Creating environments for peaceful problem solving. Young Children61(6), 22.
  • Mashford-Scott, A., & Church, A. (2011). Promoting children’s agency in early childhood education. Novitas-ROYAL5(1).

Listens and Follows Directions

Tip 1:
  • Austin, J. L., & Agar, G. (2005). Helping young children follow their teachers’ directions: The utility of high probability command sequences in pre-k and kindergarten classrooms. Education & Treatment of Children28(3), 222.
  • Chambers, C. R. (2006). High-probability request strategies: Practical guidelines. Young Exceptional Children9(2), 20-28.
  • Cipani, E. (1993). Non-compliance: Four strategies that work. Exceptional children (Vol. 38, p. 36). Reston, VA.
  • Lee, D. L., Belfiore, P. J., & Budin, S. G. (2008). Riding the wave: Creating a momentum of school success. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 65 – 70.
  • Ritz, M., Noltemeyer, A., Davis, D., & Green, J. (2014). Behavior management in preschool classrooms: Insights revealed through systematic observation and interview. Psychology in the Schools51(2), 181-197.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Neef, M. A., Shafer, M. S., Egel, A. L., Cataldo, M. F., & Parrish, J. M. (1983). The class specific effects of compliance training with “do” and “don’t” requests: Analogue analysis and classroom application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 81-99.
  • Park, H. S. L., & Lynch, S. A. (2014). Evidence-based practices for addressing classroom behavior problems. Young Exceptional Children17(3), 33-47.
  • Stephenson, K. M., & Hanley, G. P. (2010). Preschoolers’ compliance with simple instructions: A descriptive and experimental evaluation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 229-247.
Tip 3:
  • DiCarlo, C. F., Baumgartner, J. I., Caballero, J. O., & Powers, C. (2017). Using least-to-most assistive prompt hierarchy to increase child compliance with teacher directives in preschool classrooms. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45(6), 745-754.
Tip 4:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Makes Appropriate Movement between Activities

Tip 1:
  • Mulcahy, W. (2012). Zach gets frustrated. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing Inc.
Tip 2:
  • Barbarin, O. A, & Wasik, B. H. (2009). Handbook of child development and early education: Research to practice. New York: Guilford Press.
 Tip 3:
  • National Center on Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning (2019). Supporting transitions: Using child development as a guide. Washington, D.C.: Author.
Tip 4:
  • Jiron, A., Brogle, B., & Giacomini, J. (2012). How to help your child transition smoothly between places and activities. Tampa, FL: National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations.

Participates in Group Activities

Tip 1:
  • Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., La Paro, K.M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R.C. (2005). The contribution of classroom setting and quality of instruction to children’s behavior in kindergarten classrooms. The Elementary School Journal 105(4), 377-394.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Respects Rights, Diversity, Feelings, and Property of Others

Tip 1:
  • Adams, E. J. (2011). Teaching children to name their feelings. Young Children66(3), 66.
  • Gallingane, C., & Han, H. S. (2015). Words can help manage emotions: using research-based strategies for vocabulary instruction to teach emotion words to young children. Childhood Education91(5), 351-362.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Salmon, A. K., Gangotena, M. V., & Melliou, K. (2018). Becoming Globally Competent Citizens: A Learning Journey of Two Classrooms in an Interconnected World. Early Childhood Education Journal46(3), 301-312.
Tip 3:
  • Foyle, H. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in the early childhood classroom. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. West Haven, CT.

Works and Plays Cooperatively with Others

Tip 1:
  • Foyle, H. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in the early childhood classroom. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. West Haven, CT.
Tip 2:
  • Skinner, C. H., Cashwell, T. H., & Skinner, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students’ reports of peers’ prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.
Tip 3:
  • Ramani, G. B. (2012). Influence of a playful, child-directed context on preschool children’s peer cooperation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 159-190.
Tip 4:
  • Meiners, C. (2017). Join in and play. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.

Guide for Families: How can I encourage my child when I see them trying to learn this skill?

 

  • Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2018). I can do this! The development and calibration of children’s expectations for success and competence beliefs. Developmental Review.
  • Zentall, S. R., & Morris, B. J. (2010). “Good job, you’re so smart”: The effects of inconsistency of praise type on young children’s motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology107(2), 155-163.

 

Reference List for Teacher Tips:

Completes Work on Time

Tip 1:
  • Barbarin, O. A, & Wasik, B. H. (2009). Handbook of child development and early education: Research to practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Tip 2:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 3:
  • Bragle B., Jirdon, A., & Giacomini, J. (2018). How to help your child manage time and understand expectations. Backpack Connection Series.
  • Embry, D. D., & Biglan, A. (2008). Evidence-based kernels: fundamental units of behavioral influence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 75–113.
Tip 4:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Demonstrates Consistent Effort

Tip 1:
  • Collet, V. S. (2017). ” I can do that!” Creating classrooms that foster resilience. Young Children72(1), 23-31.
  • De Haas-Warner, S. J. (1991). Effects of self-monitoring on preschoolers’ on-task behavior: A pilot study. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education11(2), 59-73.
  • Rock, M. L. (2005). Use of strategic self-monitoring to enhance academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without exceptionalities. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions7(1), 3-17.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Sawyer, J. (2017). I think I can: Preschoolers’ private speech and motivation in playful versus non-playful contexts. Early Childhood Research Quarterly38, 84-96.
Tip 3:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Handles Conflict Appropriately

Tip 1:
  • Lamm, S., Groulx, J. G., Hansen, C., Patton, M. M., & Slaton, A. J. (2006). Creating environments for peaceful problem solving. Young Children61(6), 22. 
Tip 2:
  • Dailey, A. L., Frey, A. J., & Walker, H. M. (2015). Relational aggression in school settings: definition, development, strategies, and implications. Children & Schools37(2), 79-88.
Tip 3:
  • Dinwiddie, S. A. (1994). The saga of sally, sammy and the red pen: Facilitating children’s social problem solving. Young Children49(5), 13-19.
  • Gartrell, D. (2002). Replacing time-out: Part two–using guidance to maintain an encouraging classroom. Young Children57(2), 36-43.
  • Lamm, S., Groulx, J. G., Hansen, C., Patton, M. M., & Slaton, A. J. (2006). Creating environments for peaceful problem solving. Young Children61(6), 22.
  • Mashford-Scott, A., & Church, A. (2011). Promoting children’s agency in early childhood education. Novitas-ROYAL5(1).

Listens and Follows Directions

Tip 1:
  • Cipani, E. (1993). Non-compliance: Four strategies that work. Exceptional children (Vol. 38, p. 36). Reston, VA.
  • Lee, D. L., Belfiore, P. J., & Budin, S. G. (2008). Riding the wave: Creating a momentum of school success. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 65 – 70.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Austin, J. L., & Agar, G. (2005). Helping young children follow their teachers’ directions: The utility of high probability command sequences in pre-k and kindergarten classrooms. Education & Treatment of Children28(3), 222.
  • Chambers, C. R. (2006). High-probability request strategies: Practical guidelines. Young Exceptional Children9(2), 20-28.
  • Cipani, E. (1993). Non-compliance: Four strategies that work. Exceptional children (Vol. 38, p. 36). Reston, VA.
  • Lee, D. L., Belfiore, P. J., & Budin, S. G. (2008). Riding the wave: Creating a momentum of school success. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 65 – 70.
  • Ritz, M., Noltemeyer, A., Davis, D., & Green, J. (2014). Behavior management in preschool classrooms: Insights revealed through systematic observation and interview. Psychology in the Schools51(2), 181-197.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 3:
  • Neef, M. A., Shafer, M. S., Egel, A. L., Cataldo, M. F., & Parrish, J. M. (1983). The class specific effects of compliance training with “do” and “don’t” requests: Analogue analysis and classroom application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 81-99.
  • Park, H. S. L., & Lynch, S. A. (2014). Evidence-based practices for addressing classroom behavior problems. Young Exceptional Children17(3), 33-47.
  • Stephenson, K. M., & Hanley, G. P. (2010). Preschoolers’ compliance with simple instructions: A descriptive and experimental evaluation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 229-247.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Makes Appropriate Movement between Activities

Tip 1:
  • Mulcahy, W. (2012). Zach gets frustrated. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing Inc.
Tip 2:
  • Butler, A. M., & Ostrosky, M. M. (2018). Reducing challenging behaviors during transitions: Strategies for early childhood educators to share with parents. Young Children, 73(4), 12-18.
Tip 3:
  • National Center on Early Childhood Development, Teaching, and Learning (2019). Supporting transitions: Using child development as a guide. Washington, D.C.: Author.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 4:
  • Jiron, A., Brogle, B., & Giacomini, J. (2012). How to help your child transition smoothly between places and activities. Tampa, FL: National Center for Pyramid Model Innovations.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Participates in Group Activities

Tip 1:
  • Rimm‐Kaufman, S. E., La Paro, K.M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R.C. (2005). The contribution of classroom setting and quality of instruction to children’s behavior in kindergarten classrooms. The Elementary School Journal 105(4), 377-394.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2
  • Nagro, S. A., Hooks, S. D., Fraser, D. W., & Cornelius, K. E. (2016). Whole-group response strategies to promote student engagement in inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 48(5), 243–249.

Respects Rights, Diversity, Feelings, and Property of Others

Tip 1:
  • Adams, E. J. (2011). Teaching children to name their feelings. Young Children66(3), 66.
  • Gallingane, C., & Han, H. S. (2015). Words can help manage emotions: using research-based strategies for vocabulary instruction to teach emotion words to young children. Childhood Education91(5), 351-362.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Salmon, A. K., Gangotena, M. V., & Melliou, K. (2018). Becoming Globally Competent Citizens: A Learning Journey of Two Classrooms in an Interconnected World. Early Childhood Education Journal46(3), 301-312.
Tip 3:
  • Foyle, H. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in the early childhood classroom. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. West Haven, CT.
Tip 4:
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.

Works and Plays Cooperatively with Others

Tip 1:
  • Foyle, H. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in the early childhood classroom. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. West Haven, CT.
  • Teacher and family advisory group meetings.
Tip 2:
  • Foyle, H. C. (1991). Cooperative learning in the early childhood classroom. NEA Early Childhood Education Series. West Haven, CT. 
Tip 3:
  • Skinner, C. H., Cashwell, T. H., & Skinner, A. L. (2000). Increasing tootling: The effects of a peer‐monitored group contingency program on students’ reports of peers’ prosocial behaviors. Psychology in the Schools37(3), 263-270.
Tip 4:
  • Ramani, G. B. (2012). Influence of a playful, child-directed context on preschool children’s peer cooperation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 159-190.
Tip 5:
  • Bilmes, J. (2012). Chaos in kindergarten. Educational Leadership, 70(2), 32-35.
  • Meiners, C. (2017). Join in and play. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.

Guide for Teachers: How can I encourage children when I see them trying to learn this skill?

  • Muenks, K., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2018). I can do this! The development and calibration of children’s expectations for success and competence beliefs. Developmental Review.
  • Zentall, S. R., & Morris, B. J. (2010). “Good job, you’re so smart”: The effects of inconsistency of praise type on young children’s motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology107(2), 155-163.

Developed by the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania, the School District of Philadelphia, families, and teachers. Funded by the William Penn Foundation.

 

EXCEL

These 14 skills help children Conquer Kindergarten and EXCEL in school and life. These skills assist kindergarteners who are working hard to learn their ABCs and 123s, and they support future academic achievement, healthy relationships, and career success.

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